PACE Turf - Turfgrass Information Center

Use Bayer Rewards points for PACE Turf membership

For those of you that are participating in the Bayer Rewards (Accolades) program, we are pleased to announce that you can now use your points to purchase PACE Turf memberships.

Just login to the Bayer Rewards website, and click on the "Catalogue" button. Then, click on the "Tools of the Trade" category in the left menu bar. You will see the PACE Turf membership option listed there.

iPad2 Giveaway

iPAD2 Giveaway Winner Announced!

Congratulations to Ken Newcomb, Coto De Caza Golf and Racquet Club

The 2011 PACE Turf iPad2 Giveaway introduced more turf management professionals to PACE Turf and social networking sites such as Facebook. More than 350 people liked the PACE Turf on Facebook. Thanks for your participation!

The PACE Turf Facebook page provides samples of information from the PACE Turf website and YouTube channel that are of interest throughout the year. If you like what you see, please take the tour and consider joining PACE Turf - the most comprehensive and well organized technical resource for turfgrass managers.

 

Top Ten Turf Monitoring Tools

OK, so we couldn’t stop at 10. Once we got started listing tools that we have found to be effective, that are easy to use and to acquire, and that are relatively inexpensive, we found at least 15 turf monitoring tools that we think should be in every superintendent’s arsenal.

This information was presented in the "Answers on the Hour" Session at the February, 2011 Golf Industry Show in Orlando. For those of you that didn’t attend the session, please feel free to download and print this handout (131 KB pdf) for further information.

Intrigued by the weird designs on the back of the handout? These QR codes are a type of bar code that can be rapidly scanned with your smart phone’s camera to gain immediate access to a website. The codes on the back of the handout correspond to the websites of each of the manufacturers listed on the front of the handout as sources for the tools that we recommend.

Although some phones have built in QR readers, iPhone users will need to download a QR application (usually free or under 2 dollars). To find out what you need for your phone, just do an online search for the model of your phone, followed by the words QR reader.

Not a PACE Turf member yet?

For more information on how PACE Turf’s member website, emails and videos can help you get the answers you need, please take the tour of PACE Turf member services, visit our home page  or read what other turf managers have to say about the benefits of membership.

Hope to see you at the show!

We are looking forward to the GCSAA conference and show next week, and hope to see many of you there. We are teaching three different courses this year, and hope you'll have some time to stop by before or after one of the classes to say hello! (schedules and locations are listed below).

For those of you who won't be in Orlando this year, we're planning on reporting back on any new and worthwhile information that we can glean.

Monday, February 7, 9:20 – 9:40 am: "The latest dirt on dirt on sensor technology". Room W304 (F,G and H)

Tuesday, February 8, 1 – 5 pm: "Tools for Managing Economic Challenges: The IPM Planning Guide and Precision Turf Management". Room W311D

Wednesday, February 9, 2 – 2:30 pm: " Ten turf monitoring tools that you can't do without: a demonstration". Trade Show Floor, Booth 1585.

Background information on economics and environmental profile of the golf industry

With 16,000 golf courses spread throughout the U.S., the golf course industry impacts us in many ways. The articles below have been produced by researchers to measure the effect of golf courses on the economy, on the environment, and on the production of greenhouse gasses. Overall, the impact of the industry in all of these sectors is a positive one. See this video for more information.

The economics of the golf industry:

The role of golf courses in counteracting global warming:

Efforts taken by the golf course industry to improve environmental stewardship:

A message from PACE Turf owners, Dr. Wendy Gelernter and Dr. Larry Stowell:

We hope that we have kindled your interest in PACE Turf's information service with the information above. If you join today, you will have immediate access to weekly emailed updates, educational videos, site-specific weather and pest forecasts, state-of-the-art web site and many other services that will help you to prevent turf problems before they occur, save you time and money, and keep you current with the newest management products and practices. At $275 per year, or just $ 0.75 per day, it's a bargain that you can't afford not to take advantage of!

For more information, please take the tour of PACE Turf member services, visit our home page or read what other turf managers have to say about the benefits of membership. Please also feel free to contact us at any time. We look forward to having you join us!

Soil Analytical Laboratories

The following analytical laboratories conduct soil and water nutritional analyses. Many also conduct plant tissue analyses. PACE's guidelines for soil nutrition, irrigation water quality, and turfgrass tissues are available on this site. Please note that this is only a partial listing of analytical labs.

PACE Turf utilizes Brookside Laboratories for most analytical laboratory services, soil, tissue, water, geotechnical and environmental. Brookside Laboratories Inc., and it's association of independent consultants, stand at the leading edge of technology for high-quality and accurate analytical services to agriculture, environmental and sports turf throughout the world.

Brookside Laboratories Phone: 419-977-2766

Other laboratory options are listed below:

Cooperative Resource International- Harris Laboratories Phone: 402-476-0300

Logan Labs Phone: 937-842-6100

Servi-Tech Laboratories Phone: 800-557-7509

A & L Laboratories Phone: 800-264-4522

How we review products and practices

Selecting which product or practice will perform the best for you is one of the most important — and also one of the most difficult— decisions that turf managers face. The fact that some materials are marketed with little or no data, or with misleading data, complicates your decision ten-fold.

One of our main goals is to supply PACE Turf members with science–based guidance on the efficacy of turf products, practices and management strategies. Whether we are reviewing the performance of gray leaf spot control agents, sod webworm products or strategies for moss control, we always provide a listing of the options that will perform best, in our analysis.

But how do we determine which strategies to recommend, and which to omit from our publications and presentations? The internal guidelines shown below were developed here at PACE Turf over the past 20 years, and, because they are based in the scientific method, they give us confidence that the recommendations that we pass along to you are as useful and dependable as possible. The guidelines below may also be useful to each of you in product selection decisions, as well as in communicating to vendors the standards that you will use to evaluate the products that they are promoting.

PACE Turf internal guidelines for development of turf management recommendations:

  1. Each research trial must have a detailed protocol that describes the objectives of the study, as well as detailed materials and methods that include statistical analytical methods and experimental design parameters.
  2. Treatments must be replicated and include appropriate non–treated controls. In addition, current method(s) of choice should be included for purposes of comparison.
  3. Trials should be conducted, supervised or coordinated by a qualified independent researcher or consultant (university or extension researchers, Certified Crop Advisors, Certified Professional agronomists, Certified Soil Scientists, independent researchers with a minimum of a B.S. in agricultural or related sciences). Publication record in peer reviewed science journals is a plus. Unknown researchers are required to supply a resume and references with their research reports.
  4. Raw data must be provided by researchers to PACE Turf upon request. PACE Turf may re–analyze raw data to confirm conclusions.
  5. The product or practice should be tested in multiple locations (a minimum of 3) and, if feasible, in multiple environmental regions.
  6. Products that are selected for use in PACE Turf management recommendations must show a substantial positive effect. A statistically significant response alone is not sufficient, as it does not necessarily show that the product will provide a useful and practical solution for PACE turf clients.
  7. Data cannot be "cherry–picked" so that only favorable data is provided for review, and negative data is withheld.

Yes, we’re on Facebook!

We have joined the ranks of millions of Facebook users with PACE Turf's new Facebook page. Because it's so new, we are still adding to it, but we'd love to hear your feedback. If you are a Facebook member, you can do this by:

Not on Facebook yet? Neither were we, until recently. So far, we've had many different impressions — it's fun, it's perplexing, it's riveting, and it's definitely a potential black hole for your valuable time. But it's also a great resource for connecting with professional colleagues, as well as relatives and friends (both current and long–lost). It's free, it's easy to register, and worth a look. Hope to see you on the PACE Turf Facebook page soon!

IPM Planning Tools

The spreadsheets, references and procedures below were developed, with support from a GCSAA grant, to assist superintendents in creating an IPM Plan for their golf courses. The IPM Planning Guide was the result of this two year effort. Use this guide, or the tools listed below, to starting building your site specific IPM Plan.

Instructions for completing the IPM Template (291 KB pdf)

Pest, Soil and Water Management References (1.7 MB pdf)

The following forms are available for use in constructing your GCSAA IPM Template

Electronic entry forms:

Printable forms:

Examples of completed forms for IPM Planner, Pest Worksheet, Climate Appraisal and Budgeting Worksheet

Turf growth potentials: a tool with many uses

We developed the growth potential model to explain myriad of ways in which weather impacts turf growth. The model considers turf growth to be good when the growth potential (GP) is between 50% and 100% (the best possible growth occurs at a GP of 100%). However, when weather conditions are either too hot or too cold for optimal turf growth, the GP falls below 50%, and turf becomes progressively more stressed. When the GP falls to 10% or lower, growth is extremely limited. We have listed a few of the many uses of growth potentials below.

  • Timing application for chemical transition accelerators (Kerb, Revolver, Monument, Manor, Blade, TranXit): Warm-season turf GP should be 50% or higher at the time of application in order to ensure that sufficient warm-season turf cover is present.
  • Scheduling aggressive management practices (aerification) or stressful events (tournaments): Turf growth potential should be as high as possible (greater than 50%) and on the rise when stressful events are scheduled. This allows for the greatest recovery potential of the turf.
  • Explaining why cool- or warm-season turf is performing poorly (or well).
  • After a heat spell, predicting how long will it take for cool-season turf to begin active growth again.

Table of growth potential at different average air temperatures (pdf).
Table of growth potentials in selected US Cities (pdf).

IPM Planning Guide now available

The IPM Planning Guide, which was recently launched on the GCSAA's Environmental Institute for Golf web site, represents the culmination of a multi–year, multi–institution collaboration that we are very proud to have been part of. The Guide includes all of the tools that turf managers need to develop a comprehensive integrated pest management plan -- from climate assessments, to spreadsheets for management planning and financial analysis, to guidelines for everything from soil and plant nutrition to pest management. The entire Guide is available, free of charge, to all turf managers, whether they are GCSAA members or not.

Whether you are developing your very first IPM plan, or are refining a plan that has been in use for years, the IPM Planning Guide makes it easier, and dare we say more fun, to bring your IPM programs to the next level. For more information, see also the July, 2010 Golf Course Management article, "Bringing IPM to the next level". We will also be teaching a half–day seminar that revolves around the Planning Guide, "Tools for managing economic challenges: the IPM planning guide and precision turf management", at the Orlando GCSAA Education Conference (February 8, 2011), and will be giving a GCSAA webinar on the topic, "Making the most of your IPM plan", on November 18, 2010.

Use GreenPartners points for your PACE Turf membership

We're happy to announce that PACE Turf memberships can now be paid for with points from Syngenta's GreenPartners rewards program. You can redeem your GreenPartners points for PACE Turf membership by phone or online:

  • ONLINE:
    1. Go to the GreenPartners website where you can either login to redeem your points (if you are a GreenPartners member) or enroll.
    2. Enter "PACE Turf" into the search box of the Rewards Catalog. You can also find us under the category "Special Services" (item number 23332).
  • BY PHONE: Call GreenPartners toll-free at 877-375-0824 and select option 4 from the menu. Place your order for the PACE Turf Membership, item # 23332.

A PACE Turf eMembership, normally priced at $275 per year, is worth 36,000 GreenPartners points

If you are not familiar with GreenPartners, it is Syngenta's customer appreciation program. Members of the program can redeem GreenPartners points for many different reward options, including, of course, the crème de la crème of their catalog — the PACE Turf eMembership.

Fungicide combination products: decision-making tools

Are they a gimmick by manufacturers, or a great new tool for turf managers? A prescription for fungicide overuse, or a more effective approach that takes advantage of fungicide synergies? These are just some of the questions raised as superintendents try to decide whether a fungicide combination product is the best choice for them.

To help you decide if any given combination product is a good choice for your situation, we have developed two useful tools:


A message from PACE Turf owners, Dr. Wendy Gelernter and Dr. Larry Stowell:

We hope that we have kindled your interest in PACE Turf's information service with the information above. If you join today, you will have immediate access to weekly emailed updates, educational videos, site-specific weather and pest forecasts, state-of-the-art web site and many other services that will help you to prevent turf problems before they occur, save you time and money, and keep you current with the newest management products and practices. At $275 per year, or just $ 0.75 per day, it's a bargain that you can't afford not to take advantage of!

For more information, please take the tour of PACE Turf member services, visit our home page or read what other turf managers have to say about the benefits of membership. Please also feel free to contact us at any time. We look forward to working with you soon.

Announcing the PACE Turf eMembership

Based on input from members who want the convenience, money savings and environmental sustainability of an all-electronic membership, PACE Turf is happy to announce its new, paperless eMembership option.

Sign up today

eMembers will receive all of the benefits of regular membership in PACE Turf, but with all services, including publications (Highlights, Clubhouse Editions, Insights and References) available exclusively online or via email.

PACE Turf will also continue to offer regular memberships, at $325 per year. This membership includes all eMember benefits plus print versions of PACE publications (Clubhouse Editions, Highlights, Insights, References and an Archive notebook) mailed to your address.

Benefits of eMembership:

  • Simplify your life: reduce paper, mail and office clutter by printing out publications only when you need them.
  • Save money: at $275 per year, eMembers will enjoy a 15% cost savings over regular membership. Discounts for 10 or more memberships are available; please contact us at pace@paceturf.org or 858-272-9897 for more information
  • Help the environment: it’s amazing how many resources a paper mailing can generate, including fuel for air and ground freight, paper, envelopes, ink and electricity for printing.
  • Continue to have the answers at your fingertips with PACE Turf’s state-of-the-art web and email member services, including:
    • Email services: weekly Updates keep you current with breaking news on practices, research, pests and products and Weather Alerts (emailed 3 times per week) provide up-to-date pest, turf and weather forecasts customized for your location
    • Online Weather Services: The Weather Update page provides forecasts of weather, turf growth and pest occurrence, and is updated several times a day for your location. The Weather History page gives you detailed information on past weather conditions at your location.
    • The online Photo Gallery's hundreds of photos can be used for rapid pest ID and illustration of new techniques
    • The online Member Forum allows PACE Turf members from around the world to easily communicate about new ideas, practices and products.
    • Online publications can be printed out when and where you need them. Clubhouse Editions are one-page publications designed to educate golfers on the science behind your management practices. Highlights summarize key events of the past month in a 4-page color publication. References are essential tools for turf management, with publications on soil, weather and pest management guidelines. Insights are publications that translate science into practice with in-depth analyses of turf agronomic topics.
    • The online Archive gets you the answers fast with a searchable library of hundreds of PACE Turf publications, research reports and references.

Interested in eMembership? For new members, just check the eMembership box on the online membership form, or on the mail-in membership form. For renewing members, you will be given the option to switch to eMembership at the time of your next renewal.

Reclaimed water article published

An article summarizing over 10 years of PACE Turf's research on reclaimed water appears in the September, 2008 issue of Golf Course Industry. For more information on using and managing reclaimed water on golf course turf, see these PACE Turf publications:

Super Journal presentation on virtual irrigation and disease management

PACE Turf developed the virtual irrigation audit as a tool for diagnosing coverage problems with irrigation systems, and for predicting the performance of new irrigation systems even before they are installed. Recent data indicates that the system can also be used to accurately predict the location and the size of disease outbreaks.

To learn more, visit the Super Journal website, and read the report, "The Virtual Irrigation Audit: A Diagnostic Tool For Turfgrass Disease".

Soil guidelines

The PACE Soil Nutritional Guidelines are based on our soils database of over 15,000 samples.

For information on a variety of other turf management guidelines, click here.

2008 PACE Turf Research Seminar: thanks to all involved

The 11th PACE Turf Research Seminar, which took place on June 20, was a great success, thanks to the 160 attendees, the informative speakers, and the sponsorship of the companies below:

Company Representative
Aquatrols Ken Mauser
BASF Fred Eckert
Bayer Stephen Kimball
Cleary Chemical Robert Hunter
John Deere Landscapes Bill Blackman
Milliken Cordie Morgan
Syngenta Kimberly Gard
Target Specialty Products Tim Roth
West Coast Turf John Marman
Western Farm Service Geff Ward

How you can play a role in fairy ring research

Researchers at North Carolina State University have begun tackling one of turf management's more perplexing questions: which fungi cause fairy ring, and what are the best management practices for dealing with each of them?

If you have been plagued with fairy ring, you already know that textbooks identify over 60 different fungi that are known to cause fairy ring. But what the textbooks don't say is that most of these fungi are uncharacterized. What's more, it isn't clear whether management methods that work for one fairy ring fungus will work for others.

Luckily, plant pathologist Lee Miller, who is a graduate student in Dr. Lane Tredway's lab, will be taking a closer look. But he needs your help in the form of samples of fairy ring-affected turf. To submit a sample to Miller for analysis, please follow the instructions below:

Fairy ring sample submission:

  • Send 1-2 cup cutter plugs from the leading (outside) edge of the ring.
  • Wrap bottom and sides of sample in aluminum foil to keep stable
  • If mushrooms or puffballs are present, place as many as possible in soil sample box or paper bag (no plastic!!).
  • Put samples in shipping box and stuff with newspaper to keep plugs in place during shipping. Send to:
Plant Disease and Insect Clinic
North Carolina State University
Attention: Lee Miller
Campus Box 7211
1227 Gardner Hall
100 Derieux Place
Raleigh, NC 27695
919-515-3619

Getting a diagnosis for brown ring patch (Waitea circinata)

Is it difficult-to-control brown patch, or is it the new disease known as brown ring patch (caused by Waitea circinata)?

Knowing the answer can save you time, fungicide costs and turf damage, but it isn't always easy to distinguish the two closely related diseases

If you would like to have a definitive diagnosis made, Dr. Frank Wong of the University of California, can help out. To send him a sample, follow the instructions on his Turfgrass Pathology Diagnostic Lab website. Dr. Wong requests that you include a completed sample submission form with your shipment, and that you call (951-827-2936) or email (turfpathology@ucr.edu) the lab before you ship. Diagnostic fees are $98 per sample (up to 2 plugs) which includes a report detailing the disease diagnosis, basic salinity, pH and nitrate testing, and control recommendations. An invoice for payment will be sent along with the diagnostic report.

APS Turf Tour

On July 27, 2007, PACE hosted a turf tour for 35 plant pathologists who were in town for the American Phytopathological Society meetings. The participants, who came from all over the U.S., were able to view a cornucopia of turf types and turf uses — from the paspalum fairways of Fairbanks Ranch CC, to the GN-1 bermudagrass at the Del Mar Thoroughbred Club, to the kikuyugrass fairways at Torrey Pines GC, the poa/bent greens at Mission Bay GC and the overseeded Bullseye bermudagrass at Petco Park.

The all-day tour was a great success, thanks to the superintendents listed below who so graciously hosted us. We want to take this opportunity to thank them here for their time, their insights, and their generosity in sharing their experiences with all of us.

  • Candice Combs, CGCS, Superintendent: Torrey Pines Golf Course
  • Brian Darrock. Superintendent: Fairbanks Ranch Country Club
  • Gerald Dearie, Superintendent: Mission Bay Golf Course
  • Leif Dickinson, Superintendent: Del Mar Thoroughbred Club
  • Mark Woodward, CGCS, Director of Golf Course Operations: Torrey Pines Golf Course
  • Luke Yoder, Superintendent: Petco Park

Congratulations to the 2006 PACE IPM Photo Contest Winners!

October 1, 2006:

It is with great pleasure that we announce today the winners of the 2006 PACE IPM Photo Contest.


1st place photo by Steve Thomas
First place: Steve Thomas of Pelican Hills Golf Club (Newport Coast, CA) for his photo illustrating the benefits of selecting cultivars with disease resistance. Steve's photo met all of our criteria for a great looking image that communicated an important IPM practice and included a well written legend. Steve will be able to select either a Canon A700 or a $300 gift certificate to 47th Street camera for his first prize.

2nd photo by Ron Parker
Second place: Ron Parker, CGCS, for his photo demonstrating the diagnostic power of an electrical conductivity meter. By the way, the reading of 19.20 on Ron's meter converts to over 50 dS/m total dissolved salts. These are extreme conditions, and there is no turf type that will survive in soil with that salinity level. Ron will receive a $200 gift certificate from 47th Street Photo.

3rd place photo by David Major
Third place: David Major, CGCS of Shady Canyon Golf Club (Irvine, CA) for his photo of wireless sensors that can provide useful information on soil moisture, temperature and salinity. David will receive a $100 gift certificate from 47th Street Photo.

Congratulations, Steve, Ron and Dave for your prize-winning work. And thanks again to all of you who participated. Your excellent photos will remain on the PACE Public Edition website, where they will be a valuable resource for turf managers all around the world.

Index of photography articles

Tips on writing photo titles and descriptions

A note on spelling: Check the spelling of your title and description with a dictionary, an on-line spell-checker or a helpful friend or spouse. You have put a lot of work into the photo and you are trying to convey your technical know-how and professionalism. Don't ruin the effect with a poor spelling!

Titles: Titles should be very brief -- 5 words or less -- and should grab the observer's interest by honing in on the most important feature of the photograph. "Anthracnose on poa" or "Beneficial ladybird beetle" are examples of good titles. Avoid long, narrative titles such as "Anthracnose on this poa green occurred after long heat spell and tournament in Chicago, IL." This type of information should be left for the description (see below).

Descriptions: Even the best photographs are rarely self-explanatory. They require a description, or caption, of 50 words or less, that, at a minimum, should include the following information:

  • who or what is in the photo
  • when and where the photo was taken
  • who the photographer is

The description should be easy to read, and should be able to stand alone (it should make sense, even if the photo is not present). Examples of photos with good titles and descriptions appear below.


Wetting fork for LDS management
A wetting fork can be used to re-wet areas with severe localized dry spot. Bentgrass green, southern California, 1993. Photo by L. Stowell.

Waitea patch control on poa green
Waitea patch control. Non-treated (top) vs. Endorse 4 oz/1000 sq ft (bottom) 2 wks after treatment (5/26/06). Other good-performing treatments included (rates in oz/1000 sq ft) 26GT (4), Heritage (0.4), Banner Maxx (2), Medallion (0.5). Poa green, Torrey Pines GC, San Diego CA. Photo by L. Stowell

Drought stress
Drought stress on Poa annua collar due to irrigation programming discrepancies. Southern California, 2005. Photo by L. Stowell

PACE Mission

The PACE Turf information service delivers science-based solutions to turf management problems with breaking research news, information and expert advice that is customized for your location.

Dr. Wendy Gelernter and Dr. Larry Stowell translate science into practical information that comes to you via emailed newsletters and weather alerts, a state-of-the-art website, and print publications that you will refer to again and again in the development of your turf management programs.

WIN A CANON A700 CAMERA IN THE PACE IPM PHOTO CONTEST

Contest goals:

  • To encourage turfgrass professionals and students to use their digital cameras more effectively
  • To share turf IPM information and digital images with the turf management community
  • To acquaint you with the PACE Turfgrass Research Institute Photo Gallery, a digital photo library that is available free of charge.
  • To provide some prizes and to have some fun in the process!

Entry deadline: The contest runs from July 5, 2006 to September 15, 2006.

Prizes: Winners will be notified by email and results will be posted on the PACE website on October 1, 2006. Three winners will be selected. 1st prize: Canon Powershot A700 camera or a $300 gift certificate from 47th Street Photo ; 2nd prize: gift certificate for $200 at 47th Street Photo; 3rd prize: gift certificate for $100 at 47th Street Photo

What to enter:

  • Each participant may submit only one digital or scanned photo in .jpeg (.jpg) format. We will not accept entries that are submitted via conventional mail/postal services.
  • See our IPM Photography Tips for suggestions on taking a prize winning photo.
  • Photos must illustrate a turf IPM topic, concept or practice (click here for examples)
  • Photos may not exceed 1,000 X 1,000 pixels at 150 dots per inch (dpi). File size should be less than 200 KB.
  • You must be the photographer and the sole owner of the submitted photo

Judging: The judges' decision is final. Photos will be judged by PACE Research Directors Dr. Larry Stowell and Dr. Wendy Gelernter and winners selected based on the highest scoring entries in the following areas:

  • IPM subject matter (click here for a description of suggested topics)
  • Value as an educational or informational tool
  • Composition, pleasing appearance, interesting subject matter
  • Lighting, focus, clarity of image
  • Clearly written title (less than 5 words) and description of image (less than 50 words). Click here for tips on writing titles and descriptions

Use of submissions: All photos submitted for the contest will be made available on the PACE website’s Photo Gallery, and may be used by any interested person for non-profit educational purposes. Your photos will not be used in sales, advertising or marketing activities. Your photo submission is your agreement that the photo can be used on the PACE Photo Gallery website without notification or renumeration.

How to enter:

  • Take a great digital photo (Click here for tips on taking digital photos) of a qualifying topic (click here for a listing of turf IPM topics, concepts and practices)
  • Sign up on the PACE website in the category of your choice (photo contest entry is free of charge to any registered participant, but you also have the option to join PACE for more extensive benefits). Keep a record of your username and password
  • Submit your photo on-line by logging in to the PACE Photo Gallery.
  • Upload the photo onto the PACE Photo Gallery by clicking on “Upload Photos” on the upper right of the page. Choose the category “PACE IPM Photo Contest”
  • Click on the “Browse” button to locate the file that you want to upload. Click the “Upload/Submit” button
  • Write a brief title and a clear description of your photo (Click here for tips on writing titles and descriptions)

Handy Resources:

Turf IPM topics, concepts and practices

What exactly is IPM (Integrated Pest Management) anyway? With hundreds of "official" definitions available, it is hard to pin down one single answer to this question. There is even disagreement over who first originated the term.

Microdochium patch

The confusion that results is a bit frustrating, but shouldn’t be surprising. IPM is a concept that is constantly evolving, along with advances in pest control technology and our understanding of pest biology. For example, genetically engineered crops, precision management and newly imported pests such as the emerald ash borer are changing the way we think about IPM, even as we write this piece.

Rather than add to the confusion by proposing yet another definition (though if you are interested, you can view IPM definitions from the past and the present by clicking here), we have listed below some of the key pest management topics, concepts and practices that are common to almost all definitions of IPM.

Phosphorus deficiency

For guidance on the types of images that are being sought in the PACE IPM Photo Contest, look over the information below. Your photo should be related to one or more of these themes. Click on the thumbnail photos to the right for examples. If you have questions about whether your photo is suitable for demonstrating IPM topics, concepts and practices, please feel free to contact us.

Adopt cultural practices that prevent turf stress so that plants are less susceptible to pest damage:

Frost damage

  • Grow pest-resistant varieties
  • Choose varieties best suited to your environment
  • Monitor/characterize weather conditions to forecast turf performance and/or pest presence
  • Adjust fertility, irrigation, aerification etc. to bolster healthy turf growth and to avoid stress
  • Drought stress
  • Manage water wisely
  • Manage soil salinity
  • Avoid mechanical stress: increase height of cut on greens, manage traffic

Identify pests (diseases, insects, weeds, vertebrates) and the damage they cause, understand their biology:

Billbug damage

  • Monitor for pests
  • Be able to identify pests (all stages)
  • Know the conditions that promote pest activity
  • Be able to identify damage caused by specific pests
  • Know how to monitor for key pests

Fairy ring

Use all available tools to document/implement IPM:

  • Weather monitoring
  • Pest monitoring
  • Turf quality monitoring
  • Soil, plant tissue or water quality monitoring
  • Irrigation monitoring
  • Record keeping
  • Maintenance equipment (aerifiers, topdressers, etc)

Integrate all available management methods, with an emphasis on least toxic methods:

Rove beetle

  • Cultural controls
  • Mechanical controls (hand weeding, sand topdressing to reduce earthworms etc)
  • Biological control (use of parasites, predators and other living organisms to control pests)
  • Pesticide resistance management

Conserve environmental quality, promote safety

Walking boom sprayer

  • Buffer zones
  • Water conservation
  • Nutrient management/runoff management
  • Erosion control
  • Spray drift control
  • Groundwater protection
  • Protect non-target organisms
  • Preserve natural enemies of pests (insect parasites and predators, microbes that attack turf diseases)
  • If a choice is available, select the least toxic pest control method available
  • Calibrate sprayers regularly; ensure that optimum nozzles, spray volumes are used
  • Handle pesticides safely

IPM Photography Tips

Canon A700

Reasonably priced digital cameras and inexpensive photo software have brought digital imaging into the grasp of every turf manager -- whether they are golf course superintendents, sports field managers, or students. The only thing that stops us from unleashing the power that digital photography has to improve our communications, our record keeping and our jobs is that we need to turn our cameras on and start taking pictures. This short tutorial will describe how to take photographs successfully and what steps are needed to prepare images for use on the web.

Selecting a camera

We recommend that you select a camera from one of the following manufacturers: Canon, Nikon, Sony, Fuji and Olympus. The camera should have the following features:

  • Macro capability
  • Manual control for focus, aperture, shutter speed, and ISO
  • At least a 4 mega pixel sensor

Camera controls (see photo to right) should include:

  • M = Manual: allows you to select shutter and aperture
  • A = Aperture priority: you adjust the aperture
  • S = Shutter priority: you adjust the shutter speed
  • Flower symbol: macro close-up photography

Almost all digital cameras also include A (automatic) and/or P (program) controls as well. These settings are best for quick "point and shoot" photos.

Our current recommendation is from the Canon line of digital cameras, such as the A700 (which is the 1st prize for the photo contest winner) or similar camera.

Storing and Naming Photos

The most popular format for storing and exchanging photographs is the Joint Photographic Experts Group jpg or jpeg extension (.jpg). The jpg format reduces the size of the original image file without losing essential information. An important downside to the use of the jpg format is that every time you open and save an image, some detail is lost. Therefore, (and this is important!!) once you take a photo that you are happy with, you should leave it intact. If you need to modify the photo in any way -- cropping it, adjusting the color and contrast, resizing it etc. -- follow this procedure:

  • Open the original file of the photo that you want to modify. Before you make any modifications, make a second version of the file by clicking on the "save as" option (this is usually in the "File" menu).
  • A "save as" box will pop up on your screen. In the "file name" area, enter a different file name than that of your original photo.
  • You can now edit or modify this new file in any way that you wish without fear of damaging the original photo file.

For example, let's assume that you have a photo of a family birthday party that is perfect in all respects except that Uncle Bobby is quite prominently picking his nose. You would love to be able to crop Bobby out of the picture, but you don't want to degrade the quality of the original photo. If the original photo was named 06051101_bday.jpg (to indicate 5/11/2006 birthday), you could make a second version using "save as" and call it 06051101_bday_nobob.jpg) before you edit the image. Once you "save-as" the file, you can cut Bob out of the image and then "save" the image without damaging the original that you may someday want to use at Bob's 80th birthday roast.

Image Quality

The quality of the .jpg image that you save on your computer is related to the compression level that you select when saving the image. Most photographic software packages provide a range of compression or quality levels that you can select from. In the example below, high, medium and low quality images were saved (using the "save as" command) from an original to illustrate the effect of saving images at different .jpg compression settings. Note the different sizes of the files associated with each image. Click on the thumbnail image to view the full size image. To see the effect of image size and compression level on the quality of the image, compare the leaf edges and the Bipolaris lesions on the bermudagrass leaves in the 3 version below.

26 KB image saved using "low" quality jpg setting original photo was 2,666 KB
37 KB image saved using "medium" quality jpg setting original photo was 2,666 KB
94 KB image saved using "high" quality jpg setting original photo was 2,666 KB

The guidelines below will help you generate images that are sufficiently high quality for use on the web (if you want to print your photos, higher resolution is needed - use the highest resolution on the camera and use no compression during the save-as process. Normally at least 300 dpi resolution is needed for high quality print)

  • Never edit your original photo - always "save-as" before editing
  • For email and web communication, keep images at less than 200 KB. For people who have dial-up access, keep image size less than 64 KB.
  • Size images to between 500 and 1000 pixels (px) for the largest dimension of the image
  • Compress to desired level during the "save-as" process and check to be sure that the desired detail is still present in the final image

Factors to consider when taking photos

Digital cameras operate well in automatic or program mode. However, when photographing turfgrasses, there are some tricks for obtaining good images that require use of manual controls.

White balance: One of the first steps you should take in preparing to take a photograph is to check to be sure that the white balance matches the current lighting conditions (full sun, shade, overcast, flash, incandescent, fluorescent). In many cases, setting the camera to automatic white balance will result in capture of an acceptable image, but improved images will be obtained if you properly set the camera white balance. Click on the thumbnail image above to view an enlarged image of the impact of white balance on color. For example, in overcast conditions, the light that reaches the grass is more blue compared to full sun. The light that reaches the grass during early and later hours of the day is warmer - it contains more red.

Sun angle can play tricks on your eyes and on the image that the camera captures. The composite image to the right illustrates the appearance of "grain" in hybrid bermudagrass. The dark object is the handle of a knife stuck into the turf. The images on the left versus those on the right were taken from opposite directions aiming toward the knife. In the bottom pair of images, the same area is outlined in yellow to illustrate how differently turf can look, depending on where you stand and how the light hits it. In other words, in order to understand what you are seeing and photographing, always view the turf from several angles before taking your photo

Exposure is controlled by four factors:

  • Amount of light coming into the lens
  • Sensitivity of the camera's sensor (ISO)
  • Aperture (f-stop) setting
  • Shutter speed

We generally do not have much control over how much light is coming into the lens, unless we are using supplemental lighting such as a flash. Therefore, the important factors are ISO, f-stop, and shutter speed. Each of these will be discussed below.

ISO is a measure of the sensitivity of the sensor in the camera and it is frequently adjustable. For low light conditions, ISO 200 or lower should be used. For situations where you are trying to stop motion (for example, when it is windy and objects are swaying in the breeze), the sensor is set to high ISO values (400 or higher). More expensive cameras provide a wider range of ISO values to allow photography without the need for supplemental lighting (in low light conditions) or to stop fast moving objects.

F-stop is simply a measure of the lens iris opening, or the aperture. The number represents the ratio of the focal length of the lens divided by the size of the iris opening. F-stops are frequently noted as a ratio such as f/16. The larger the f number (16 in this example) the smaller the opening, the less light will pass through to impact the sensor. The benefit of a small iris opening is that the depth of field is greater compared to a larger opening. Alternatively, small f-stop numbers indicate a wider aperture opening, more light coming through the lens, and a lessened depth of field. Click on the photo to the right to see how the aperture changes as the f-stop is changed. The table below illustrates the the differences caused by different f-stop settings and the resulting changes in depth of field as the iris opening changes. Note that as the iris opening decreases from f/4.5 to f/29, the shutter speeds (see below) were increased from 1/5000 sec to 1/160 sec to compensate for the reduced light that enters the lens.

The iris opening is f/4.5. Note that the red flowers are in focus but the background white flowers are out of focus. The shutter speed was 1/5000 sec.
The iris opening is f/8. Note that the red flowers are in focus and the background white flowers are slightly out of focus. The shutter speed was 1/2000 sec.
The iris opening is f/29. Note that both the red flowers in the foreground and the white flowers in the background are both in focus. The shutter speed was 1/160 sec.

Shutter speed regulates the amount of light that is collected by the sensor after the light passes through the lens. Conventional film cameras had a physical barrier between the lens and the film that acts as the shutter, but many digital cameras operate by turning the sensor on and off for the designated period of time without the need for a shutter. The longer the shutter is open (or sensor is turned on), the more likely that movement of the subject will be detected and the more likely it is that the image will be blurry. Click on the thumbnail above to view a composite image that illustrates the impact of shutter speed on image quality when the subject is moving. Slow shutter speed can be used artistically to improve a photograph to emphasize movement. In most cases, however, fast shutter speeds, such as 1/125 sec or faster (1/250 sec, 1/500 sec etc) will provide an improved photo. If the lighting is low and fast shutter speed can't be used (because fast fast shutter doesn't allow in enough light), check the camera ISO setting to see if it can be increased to be more sensitive to light and to allow a faster shutter speed. Also check to be sure that the aperture is open to allow the maximum amount of light as discussed above. For shutter speeds below 1/125 sec, consider using a tripod to steady the camera.

Composition

For the artist, composition plays a major role in the visual impact of a the photograph. Though composition isn't as critical when communicating technical concepts, the best technical photos manage to combine both artistry and accuracy in the same picture. In other words, it is worthwhile to pay a little attention to composition - just don't let it override the considerations of focus, exposure and color described above.

There are many web sites that can help you with composition but we will mention one simple guide, the rule of thirds. When taking a photograph, the main subject of the image should be placed at one of the intersecting points where the image is broken into thirds vertically and horizontally.

The red dots illustrate where the main subject of the photograph should be placed to improve the composition of an image.
With the main subject centered in the image, the photograph does not appear very interesting (though in real life, we hear that she is actually quite fascinating!).
Even with the use to the rule of thirds, the image is still not THAT interesting but the photograph has been improved by cropping the image to result in placement of the main subject over one of the rule of thirds locations.

Welcome to the PACE Newsroom

Untitled Document

This newsroom is provided as a resource for professional communicators who work with the turfgrass industry. The press releases, background information, graphics and photographs posted here are available for use in articles, broadcasts and other media formats, but we ask that you credit PACE Turf as the source of the information.

2014

10/14/14: Press release on the first year of results from the Global Soil Survey for Sustainable Turf

4/15/14: Press release on 2014 launch of Global Soil Survey for Sustainable Turf

2013

8/14/13: Press release on Global Soil Survey for Sustainable Turf

Click on the logo for the Global Soil Survey for Sustainable Turf below in order to see the full scale image.

JPG image

EPS image

2012

PACE Turf provides its membership with a vast amount of turf management information on its website at www.paceturf.org. For the first time, PACE Turf extends permission for GCSAA chapter webmasters and newsletter editors to post or print the links to a number of its turf tools. In effect, GCSAA chapters will be able to make a PACE Turf Management Toolbox available to its members free of charge.



Contact your webmaster to request that the following html code be added to your GCSAA chapter website in the appropriate location.


<p>Turfgrass information resources provided by PACE Turf</p>
            <
ul>
            <
li>
            <
a href="http://www.paceturf.org/index.php/journal/pace_turf_disease_photo_index/">Turf disease photo index</a>
            </
li>
            <
li>
            <
a href="http://www.paceturf.org/index.php/journal/pace_turf_insect_photo_index/">Turf insect photo index</a>
            </
li>
            <
li>
            <
a href="http://www.youtube.com/paceturf">PACE Turf TV</a>
            </
li>
            <
li>
            <
a href="http://www.paceturf.org/index.php/public/free_stuff/">Additional resources</a>
            </
li>
            <
li>
            <
a href="http://www.paceturf.org/index.php/journal/">Super Journal a website to report superintendent sponsored research</a>
            </
li>
            </
ul

2011

10/26/11: Siri Talks Turf (Microsoft Word document) See the video

7/22/11: Heat and Drought Recovery (Microsoft Word document) See the video

5/2/11: Is "Attractive Traffic Control" an Oxymoron? Not at Shady Canyon Golf Club (Microsoft Word document) See the video

4/18/11: Free Videos by PACE turf Offer Spring Aeration and Disease Information (Microsoft Word document)

3/18/11: Help increase awareness of Earth Day 2011 by printing and posting the "Golf - The Green Sport" (4 MB pdf) mini-poster in your pro shop and locker rooms. Encourage recycling and conservation when asked about Earth Day. We share the planet, let's share the responsibility of keeping it clean and healthy. Earth Day 2011 falls on 4/22/2011.

2/3/11: Coming Soon to a Golf Course Near You: The iStimp App for the iPhone (Microsoft Word document) See the video

1/24/11: Golf and the Golf Industry Benefit Us all Says New, Free PACE Turf Video (Microsoft Word document) See the video

2010

12/16/10: Free Golfer Education Video by PACE Explains Frost Delays (Microsoft Word document 64KB)

See the video

9/28/10: Free Golfer Education Video by PACE Describes Aeration Benefits (Microsoft Word document 64KB)

See the video

8/4/10: Free Video by PACE Turf Educates Golfers on Heat and Turf Stress (Microsoft Word document 64KB)

See the video

For those of you that are participating in the Bayer Accolades program, we are pleased to announce that you can now use your rewards points to purchase PACE Turf memberships. Just login to the Bayer Accolades website, and go to the "Rewards Catalogue" section. You can get to the PACE Turf membership either by typing "PACE Turf" into the search box, or by selecting "Memberships" in the catalog menu. It will take 38,036 points to cover the annual PACE Turf membership fee of $275.00.

2009 News Releases

2008 News Releases

GENERAL


PACE Turf color logo vertical (84Kb)


PACE Turf color logo (20Kb)


PACE Turf black and white logo (20Kb)

PACE Turf Founders, Drs. Wendy Gelernter and Larry Stowell

2007 News Releases

Visit the PACE Super Journal website to view these recently posted articles and presentations:

2006 News Releases

2005 News Releases

EC (electrical conductivity) monitoring for soil salinity

If you are concerned that high soil salinity may be damaging your turfgrass, we suggest that you consider a regular monitoring program with an electrical conductivity meter. The method for using the meter to keep track of salinity and to trigger leaching events is described in the Monitoring Soil Salinity PACE Reference (29 KB pdf).

Sign Up

You can become involved with the PACE Turfgrass Research Institute in the following ways:

  • By joining ($325/year), you will receive full membership benefits as well as access to PACE Surveys, Forums, Super Journal and the Photo Gallery.
  • By registering (Free), you will receive free access to PACE’s Pest Surveys, Forums, Super Journal and the Photo Gallery.
  • By signing up for a free trial membership you will receive PACE’s weekly email updates (sent out every Monday) for three consecutive weeks. These publications are one of the core components of PACE membership and feature current news and research on pest and turf trends from around the country, as well as information on new and effective management strategies.

What is CVV2

Card Verification Value, or CVV2, is a security measure that we require for all credit card transactions.  Since the CVV2 number is listed on your credit card, but not stored in other locations, the only way to know the correct CVV2 is to have the card in your possession.  All Visa, MasterCard and American Express cards now have this security feature.

How to find your CVV2 number

For Visa or MasterCard, turn your card over and look in the signature strip.  You will find either the entire credit card number or just the last 4 digits of the credit card number followed by a space and a 3-digit number.  That 3-digit number is your CVV2 number.  If you can not read the CVV2 number, you will have to contact your card issuer or mail in your payment. 

For American Express, the number is imprinted on the front of the card and to the right side above the last few digits of the account number.

Visa and MasterCard

Visa/MC CVV2 location

American Express

American Express CVV2 location

 

Founders

Wendy Gelernter, Ph.D. and Larry J. Stowell, Ph.D. are PACE Turf’s founders and owners.  Their complimentary backgrounds in entomology, plant pathology, agronomy and crop science, combined with their interest in translating turfgrass research into practical management solutions are the basis of their work at PACE Turf.  In addition to being business partners, Wendy and Larry have been married since 1986, and live and work in San Diego, California.

Wendy Gelernter is an entomologist who received her B.S. from Cornell University 1976 and her Ph.D. from the University of California, Riverside in 1984.  Before joining PACE in 1995, Wendy was the Director of Commercial Development for the agricultural biotechnology company Mycogen Corporation, where she worked for 11 years.  Wendy is the author of numerous scientific publications and has served in leadership positions for several professional organizations including the Society for Invertebrate Pathology, the Entomological Society of America, and the Association of Applied IPM Ecologists.  She is a past President of the Society for Invertebrate Pathology and serves on the editorial board of the scientific publication, Biocontrol Science and Technology.

Larry J. Stowell founded PACE Consulting in 1986 and the PACE Turfgrass Research Institute in 1993. The research and consulting businesses were blended together and renmaed PACE Turf in 2008.  He is a plant pathologist, certified professional agronomist, licensed pest control advisor and qualified applicator who received his training at the University of Arizona, where he obtained his B.S. and Ph.D., and at the University of California, Davis, where he conducted post-doctoral research until 1982.  Before founding PACE, Larry was the Director of Mycoherbicide Development at the agricultural biotechnology company, Mycogen Corporation.  He is the author of numerous scientific publications and two patents, and has served in leadership positions for several professional organizations including the American Phytopathological Society, American Society of Agronomy, National Alliance of Independent Crop Consultants and the Association of Applied IPM Ecologists. He serves on the Editorial Board of Applied Turfgrass Science.

Register

REGISTERING: If you are interested in participating more actively on the PACE website, you are urged to register here free of charge. However, for maximum access to all PACE Member Benefits, please consider joining the PACE Turfgrass Research Institute today. A summarized comparison of the benefits and access offered to members vs. registered participants is provided in the table below.

Free registration will allow you to provide input to Pest Surveys. Forums, Super Journal and the Photo Gallery. There are two categories of registered users:

  • Super Participants are golf course superintendents or other professional turf managers. In addition to the access provided to registered Participants (see below), Super Participants may also post reports of pest incidences in the Pest Surveys Forum.
  • Participants may participate in the Photo Gallery and Photo Gallery Forum and may provide follow-up commentaries on reports in Pest Surveys. However, only Super Participants and Super Members may post reports of pest incidences in the Pest Surveys Forum. This procedure helps prevent the reporting of duplicate pest reports from the same location.

BECOMING A MEMBER: There are three ways to sign up for membership in the PACE Turfgrass Research Institute:

  1. Join the PACE Turfgrass Research Institute online for immediate activation of your account and access to all member benefits
  2. Join the PACE Turfgrass Research Institute off-line by printing out and mailing the Printable Membership Form with payment.
  3. Sign-up on-line and mail in payment off-line. This method will provide participant-level access until payment is received at which time full membership will be activated.

There are two membership categories:

  • Super Members are golf course superintendents or other professional turf managers who receive all membership privileges (see table below). In addition, Super Members may also post reports of pest incidences in the Pest Survey Forum.
  • Members are entitled to full membership benefits, but are not golf course superintendents or professional turf managers. Members receive all membership privleges and may provide follow-up commentaries on reports in Pest Surveys. However, only Super Members or Super Participants may post reports of pest incidences in the Pest Surveys Forum. This procedure helps prevent the reporting of duplicate pest reports from the same location.

On-line credit card transactions are executed on our secure server with Secure Site Pro excryption from VeriSign that steps old browsers up from 40 bit to 128 bit encryption to provide the best encryption and security available.

    Registered Users PACE Members
All Guests Parti-
cipants
Super Parti-
cipants
Members Super Members
Member Edition Access No No No Yes Yes
Member Forum View and Post No No No Yes Yes
PACE Archives No No No Yes Yes
PACE Clubhouse Editions No No No Yes Yes
PACE References No No No Yes Yes
PACE Weblog Updates No No No Yes Yes
Weekly PACE Email updates No No No Yes Yes
Site-specific Weather Updates No No No Yes Yes
Pest Surveys - view reports and comments Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pest Survyes - Post comments about a report No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pest Surveys - Post a Report No No Yes No Yes
Photo Gallery Forum - view forum Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Photo Gallery Forum - Post Comments No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Photo Gallery - View Photos Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Photo Gallery - Submit Photos No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Super Journal - View Research Reports Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Super Journal - Submit Research Reports No Yes Yes Yes Yes

Refund Policy

For immediate access to PACE Turf's dozens of member benefits, you are urged to Join PACE Turf

We take great pride in the quality of the services and information that are offered to PACE Turf members and have never yet had to issue a refund. However, if you are not satisfied with the membership services, we will accept cancellation of your membership at any time by refunding a portion of your annual membership fee (as determined by the time elapsed since your subscription was initiated), as indicated below.

Number of days after membership initiationPercent refunded
0-3080%
31-6060%
61-9040%
greater than 900%

Please contact PACE Turf to request a refund. You can contact us by phone at: 858.272.9897 or by email using the Contact us link. Refunds will be issued by check if the original payment was made by check. If the original payment was made by credit card, refunds will be issued by credit card.

PACE Turf's refund policy, as currently published herein, represents PACE Turf's sole obligation with respect to PACE Turf membership refunds.

Privacy Policy

PACE Turf is committed to protecting your privacy. We do not rent, sell or share your personal information with any other people or organizations for any purpose. The following discloses our information collection and use practices.

Information collection: To view free public services on the homepage, the tour or Super Journal, it is not necessary to join PACE Turf. However, PACE Turf membership is required for access to restricted areas including Updates, Weather, Insights, Clubhouse Editions, Gallery, References and Highlights. When you join, we will request that you provide personal information such as your name, e-mail address, street address or phone number for membership initiation. This personal information is used to communicate with customers and to verify identity during support and customer service requests. PACE Turf uses a member ID number, an assigned site member name (user name), and a password chosen by our members and registered participants to permit them access to our restricted services. We use your IP address as recorded in our site logs only as needed to help diagnose problems with our server, and to administer our Web site. We do not use IP address logs to track your session or your behavior on our site, and they are not shared with other sites.

Credit card transactions: All credit card transactions conducted on the PACE Turf Website are protected by VeriSign Payment Services, the most trusted security technology on the web. PACE Turf uses VeriSign’s top-of-the-line 128 bit encryption system to protect your credit card information from hacking and interception.

Cookie technology: PACE Turf uses temporary cookies to improve web navigation on the member pages, and to save access permissions for our members so that they do not have to log in multiple times as they attempt to access restricted pages during a single online session. These cookies do not contain any personal information, and are not shared with any other web site. Users who do not accept cookies from the domain www.paceturf.org may not be able to access most areas of the PACE Turf website.

Corrections and updates: Members may change their membership information (password, contact information) at any time by logging in, clicking on the the My Account section and making the appropriate changes in the "Change password/edit profile" area.

If you have questions about the privacy policy, please Contact us .

User agreement

This user agreement covers the terms and conditions for users of the PACE Turf PUBLIC website ("PUBLIC website") and the PACE Turf member website ("Member website").

PUBLIC WEBSITE

If you choose to register on the PACE Turf PUBLIC website (“PUBLIC website”), you will be agreeing to abide by all of the terms and conditions of the agreement below.

The PUBLIC website is provided by PACE Turf as a free PUBLIC service to the turf management community in order to promote education, communication and improved agronomic practices for turfgrass. Unless otherwise specified, you are encouraged to share, copy or distribute the contents of the PUBLIC website for any non-profit, educational purpose, without obtaining additional permission. All images must retain the photographer’s credits (if they are present) for all usages. For permission to use any of the contents of PUBLIC website for commercial or for-profit uses, Contact us.

The content of the PUBLIC website includes:

  • Super Journal: electronic journal for PUBLICation of applied turfgrass research conducted by superintendents, turf managers, researchers and consultants.
  • Home page
  • Tour of membership benefits

Changes to this agreement:

PACE Turf may change, add or remove portions of this Agreement at any time, but if it does so, it will post such changes on the appropriate website.

Endorsements:

You acknowledge that the opinions and recommendations contained in this Website are not necessarily those of PACE Turf or endorsed by PACE Turf. PACE Turf may provide links on the Website to other websites which are not under the control of PACE Turf. These links are provided for convenience of reference only and are not intended as an endorsement by PACE Turf or the organization or individual operating the website or a warranty of any type regarding the website or the information on the website.

Representations and warranties:

You represent, warrant and covenant that no materials of any kind submitted through your account will violate, plagiarize, or infringe upon the rights of any third party, including copyright, trademark, privacy or other personal or proprietary rights; or contain libelous or otherwise unlawful material. You hereby indemnify, defend and hold harmless PACE Turf from and against any and all liability and costs, including, without limitation, reasonable attorneys' fees in connection with any claim arising out of any breach by you or any user of your account of this Agreement or the foregoing representations, warranties and covenants. You shall cooperate as fully as reasonably required in the defense of any such claim.

Neither PACE Turf nor the PUBLIC Website represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement, or other information displayed, uploaded, or distributed through this service by any user, information provider or any other person or entity. You acknowledge that any reliance upon any such opinion, advice, statement, memorandum, or information shall be at your sole risk. THE PUBLIC WEBSITE AND ALL DOWNLOADABLE SOFTWARE ARE DISTRIBUTED ON AN "AS IS" BASIS WITHOUT WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF TITLE OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. YOU HEREBY ACKNOWLEDGE THAT USE OF THE PUBLIC WEBSITE IS AT YOUR SOLE RISK.

Correspondence should be sent to:

PACE Turf
1267 Diamond St.
San Diego, CA 92109 USA

MEMBER WEBSITE

If you choose to use the PACE Turf Member Website (“Member Website”), you will be agreeing to abide by all of the terms and conditions of the agreement below.

The contents of the Member website are intended for your personal, noncommercial use. All materials published on the Member website (including, but not limited to PACE Turf Insights, PACE Turf References, PACE Turf Clubhouse Editions, PACE Turf Updates, Weather , Weather History, Photo Gallery and Member Forums, collectively also known as “Content”) are protected by copyright, and are owned or controlled by PACE Turf, or the party credited as the provider of the Content. You may not modify, publish, transmit, participate in the transfer or sale of, reproduce (except as provided in the paragraph below), create new works from, distribute, perform, display, or in any way exploit, any of the Content or the Member website (including software) in whole or in part.

You may download or copy the Content and other downloadable items displayed on the Member website for personal use only, provided that you maintain all copyright and other notices contained therein. Copying or storing of any Content for other than personal use is expressly prohibited without prior written permission from PACE Turf or the copyright holder identified in the copyright notice contained in the Content.

Members of PACE Turf have access to all of the Content of both the PACE Turf PUBLIC website, as well as to the Content of the Member Website which includes, but is not limited to:

  • PACE Turf Updates: frequently posted updates on current pest and turf trends (members only)
  • Weather and Weather History : site-specific weather, pest and agronomic information (members only)
  • PACE Turf Insights: monthly in-depth technical reviews (members only)
  • PACE Turf References: guidelines, monitoring procedures and references on turfgrass soil, water and pest management (members only)
  • PACE Turf Highlights: monthly newsletter (members only)
  • PACE Turf Clubhouse Editions: educational literature on turf management practices intended for golfers (members only)
  • Member Forums: interactive discussions among members on turf management issues (members only)
  • PACE Turf Archives: comprehensive compilation of turf management literature (members only)
  • Photo Gallery: turf management images and photographs (members only)
  • Super Journal: electronic journal for publication of applied turfgrass research conducted by superintendents, turf managers, researchers and consultants.

Changes to this agreement:

PACE Turf may change, add or remove portions of this Agreement at any time, but if it does so, it will post such changes on the appropriate website.

PACE Turf may change, suspend or discontinue any aspect of its membership services at any time, including the availability of any feature, database, or content. PACE Turf may also impose limits on certain features and services or restrict your access to parts or all of the PUBLIC Website and/or the Member Website without notice or liability.

Forum rules and etiquette:

Courteous and respectful language must be used at all times. You shall not upload to, or distribute or otherwise publish on the Forums any libelous, defamatory, obscene, pornographic, abusive, or otherwise illegal material. You agree that you will not threaten, personally attack or verbally abuse other participants, use defamatory language, or deliberately disrupt discussions with repetitive messages, meaningless messages or "spam." You agree not to use language that abuses or discriminates on the basis of race, religion, nationality, gender, sexual preference, age, region, disability, etc.

Forums shall be used only in a noncommercial manner. You shall not, without the express approval of PACE Turf, distribute or otherwise publish any material containing any solicitation of funds, advertising or solicitation for goods or services.

You are solely responsible for the content of your messages. However, while PACE Turf does not and cannot review every message posted by you on the Forums and is not responsible for the content of these messages, PACE Turf reserves the right to delete, move, or edit messages that it, in its sole discretion, deems abusive, defamatory, obscene, in violation of copyright or trademark laws, or otherwise unacceptable.

You acknowledge that any submissions you make to the PUBLIC Website or the Member Website may be edited, removed, modified, published, transmitted, and displayed by PACE Turf and you waive any moral rights you may have in having the material altered or changed in a manner not agreeable to you.

You represent, warrant and covenant that no materials of any kind submitted through your account will (i) violate, plagiarize, or infringe upon the rights of any third party, including copyright, trademark, privacy or other personal or proprietary rights; or (ii) contain libelous or otherwise unlawful material.

Endorsements:

You acknowledge that the opinions and recommendations contained in this Website are not necessarily those of PACE Turf or endorsed by PACE Turf. PACE Turf may provide links on the Website to other websites which are not under the control of PACE Turf. These links are provided for convenience of reference only and are not intended as an endorsement by PACE Turf of the organization or individual operating the website or a warranty of any type regarding the website or the information on the website.

Representations and warranties:

You represent, warrant and covenant that no materials of any kind submitted through your account will violate, plagiarize, or infringe upon the rights of any third party, including copyright, trademark, privacy or other personal or proprietary rights; or contain libelous or otherwise unlawful material. You hereby indemnify, defend and hold harmless PACE Turf from and against any and all liability and costs, including, without limitation, reasonable attorneys' fees in connection with any claim arising out of any breach by you or any user of your account of this Agreement or the foregoing representations, warranties and covenants. You shall cooperate as fully as reasonably required in the defense of any such claim.

Neither PACE Turf nor the PUBLIC Website or the Member Website represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement, or other information displayed, uploaded, or distributed through these services by any user, information provider or any other person or entity. You acknowledge that any reliance upon any such opinion, advice, statement, memorandum, or information shall be at your sole risk. THE PUBLIC WEBSITE AND ALL DOWNLOADABLE SOFTWARE ARE DISTRIBUTED ON AN "AS IS" BASIS WITHOUT WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF TITLE OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. YOU HEREBY ACKNOWLEDGE THAT USE OF THE PUBLIC WEBSITE AND Member WEBSITE IS AT YOUR SOLE RISK.

Membership:

Paid membership in PACE Turf is required to obtain access to the Member Website. Free trial memberships of limited duration will periodically be made available for promotional purposes. however. For more information about membership in PACE Turf, see our documents on Member Benefits and on Joining PACE Turf.

As part of initiating your membership, you will select a password and a user name. You may not use a Member ID that PACE Turf, in its sole discretion, deems offensive.

PACE Turf is committed to protecting your privacy. We do not rent, sell or share the personal information that you provide to us with any other people or organizations for any purpose. For more information, see our Privacy Policy

Termination:

You may terminate your membership at any time by contacting PACE Turf at the address below. The Refund Policy provides information on refund of membership fees.

PACE Turf may, in its sole discretion, terminate or suspend your access to the Member Website for any reason, including, without limitation, breach or assignment of this Agreement. If access to the Member Website is terminated by PACE Turf, funds will be refunded in accordance with the Refund Policy.

Correspondence:

Correspondence should be sent to:

PACE Turf
1267 Diamond St.
San Diego, CA 92109 USA

Turf Management Guidelines

Turf growth potential in selected U.S. locations

Turf growth potential at different average air temperatures

Quick test for soil nitrate

EC (electrical conductivity) monitoring for soil salinity

Soil Guidelines and demystifying soil analyses

Soil Chloride and Sulfur Guidelines

Tissue Guidelines

Water Guidelines

Recycled Water

Management Planning Excel spreadsheet

Pest Worksheet Excel spreadsheet

Turf Diagnostic Labs

If you are in any doubt about the identity or cause of a turf problem, we highly recommend the use of a qualified turf diagnostician. Fortunately, there are several good labs around the U.S. who provide this service.  Check with your local land grant university and/or county extension agent for information on regional diagnostic laboratories. If none are available, the following labs provide nationwide services for reasonable fees. Labs should be contacted prior to sample shipment for specific preparation and shipping instructions.

(list updated 12/11/15)

Dr. William Crow
Dept of Entomology and Nematology
Univ. of Florida
PO Box 110620 Gainesville FL 32611-0620
PHONE: 352-392-1901 x 138
Service offered: ID of plant parasitic nematodes
University of Florida Website

Dr. Philip Harmon
Rapid Turfgrass Diagnostic Service
University of Florida Extension Plant disease Clinic
Building 78, Mowry Road
Gainesville, FL 32611-0830
(352) 392 1795
Rapid Turfgrass Diagnostic Service Website

Plant Disease and Insect Clinic
North Carolina State University
Campus Box 7211 1227 Gardner Hall   100 Derieux Place
Raleigh, NC 27695
PHONE: 919-513-3878
Service offered: ID of insect and disease pests
Website: North Carolina State University Website

Clarissa Balbalion, Director
Plant Disease and Nematode Diagnostic Laboratory
190 Bost-North Room, 9
Mississippi State, MS 39762-912
PHONE: 622-325-2146   Nematology: 662-325-8336
Website: Misissippi State University Plant Diseases and Nematode Diagnostic Services

Dr. Kate Entwhistle
The Turf Disease Centre
Waverley Cottage, Sherfield Road
Bramley, Hampshire RG26 5AG ENGLAND
PHONE: 01256 880246
Service offered: disease and nematode ID on turf samples from all countries, with the exception of the U.S. and Canada.
Turf Disease Centre website

Dr. Joe Vargas and Ron Detweiler
Michigan State University 102 CIPS
East Lansing, MI 48824-1311
PHONE: 517-353-9082
Service offered: ID of turf diseases
Website:
Michigan State Website

Dr. Bruce Clarke and Richard Buckley
Rutgers Cooperative Extension
Plant Diagnostic Laboratory
P.O. Box 550
Milltown, NJ 08850-0550
PHONE: 732-932-9140
Service offered: ID of turf diseases
Website:  www.rce.rutgers.edu/plantdiagnosticlab/default.asp
Rutgers Website

Dr. Paul Koch and Bruce Schweiger
University of Wisconsin
2502 County Highway M
Verona, WI 53593
PHONE: 608-845-2535
University of Wisconsin Website

Dr. Raghuwinder (Nick) Singh
Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic
302 Life sciences Bldg. LSU AgCenter
Baton Rouge, LA 70803
PHONE: 225-578-4562
Louisiana State University Turfgrass Diagnostic Laboratory Website

Links of Interest

Pesticide labels and MSDS

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Handbook 29, “Water Quality for Agriculture”

CDMS pesticide labels and MSDS sheets searchable by product name and manufacturer

C&P Press pesticide labels and MSDS searchable by company, product, site, and pest - subscription service with limited and weak customer support

The best scientific literature site for starting a search for turfgrass related information:
Turfgrass Information File at Michigan State University. - subscription needed.  This site should be your first stop when searching for research information in the turfgrass arena

University sites of interest:
North Carolina State University Turffiles - this site has a good archive library for presentations made by several professors including Dr. Fred Yelverton, Dr. Leon Lucas, and Dr. Lane Tredway and links to their disgnostic laboratory

Maryland Turf Council’s listing of Turf Publications

Golf Course Superintendent’s Association of America
GCSAA

Chicago District Golf Association Turfgrass Program
CDGA Turf Program

Popular Golf Course Superintendent’s Community Site:
Turfnet

National Turfgrass Evaluation Program:
NTEP

Program for April 7, 2006 PACE Turfgrass Research Seminar

7:15 REGISTRATION and CONTINENTAL BREAKFAST

8:00 An introduction to precision management: IPM, GPS and GIS. Dr. Larry Stowell, PTRI

8:45 New information on rapid blight biology and management. Dr. Mary Olsen, University of Arizona

9:15 Precision tools for 21st century turf IPM programs. Dr. Wendy Gelernter, PTRI

10:00 BREAK

10:15 Managing for firm greens: can it be achieved within an IPM framework? Dr. Larry Stowell, PTRI.

11:00.Going deeper with white grubs: hidden problems and new solutions. Dr. Wendy Gelernter, PTRI

11:45 LUNCH AND TRADE SHOW

12:45 Photography for IPM. Dr. Larry Stowell, PTRI.

1:30 Effects of water quality and quantity on IPM programs for bermudagrass. Dr. Shoumo Mitra, Cal Poly Pomona.

2:15 University of California Disease Update for 2006. Dr. Frank Wong, UC Riverside

3:00 BREAK

3:15 Another look at poa management on greens and fairways. Dr. Wendy Gelernter, PTRI

ADJOURN 4:00 pm

There are three ways to register:

  1. Register online
  2. Register by mail: Print out a registration form, complete and mail, with payment, to PACE, 1267 Diamond St., San Diego, CA 92109
  3. Register by phone by calling 858-272-9897

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Join

For maximum access to all PACE Member Benefits, please consider joining the PACE Turfgrass Research Institute today. A summarized comparison of the benefits and access offered to members vs. registered participants is provided in the table below.

There are three ways to sign up for membership in the PACE Turfgrass Research Institute:

  1. Join the PACE Turfgrass Research Institute online for immediate activation of your account and access to all member benefits
  2. Join the PACE Turfgrass Research Institute off-line by printing out and mailing the Printable Membership Form with payment.
  3. Sign-up on-line and mail in payment off-line. This method will provide participant-level access until payment is received at which time full membership will be activated.

There are two membership categories:

  • Super Members are golf course superintendents or other professional turf managers who receive all membership privileges (see table below). In addition, Super Members may also post reports of pest incidences in the Pest Survey Forum.
  • Members are entitled to full membership benefits, but are not golf course superintendents or professional turf managers. Members receive all membership privleges and may provide follow-up commentaries on reports in Pest Surveys. However, only Super Members or Super Participants may post reports of pest incidences in the Pest Surveys Forum. This procedure helps prevent the reporting of duplicate pest reports from the same location.

On-line credit card transactions are executed on our secure server with Secure Site Pro excryption from VeriSign that steps old browsers up from 40 bit to 128 bit encryption to provide the best encryption and security available.

    Registered Users PACE Members
All Guests Participants Super Participants Members Super Members
Member Edition Access No No No Yes Yes
Member Forum View and Post No No No Yes Yes
PACE Archives No No No Yes Yes
PACE Clubhouse Editions No No No Yes Yes
PACE References No No No Yes Yes
PACE Weblog Updates No No No Yes Yes
Weekly PACE Email updates No No No Yes Yes
Site-specific Weather Updates No No No Yes Yes
Pest Surveys - view reports and comments Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pest Survyes - Post comments about a report No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pest Surveys - Post a Report No No Yes No Yes
Photo Gallery Forum - view forum Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Photo Gallery Forum - Post Comments No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Photo Gallery - View Photos Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Photo Gallery - Submit Photos No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Super Journal - View Research Reports Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Super Journal - Submit Research Reports No Yes Yes Yes Yes

Contact us

PACE Turf LLC
1267 Diamond St.
San Diego, CA 92109 USA

Phone: 858-272-9897

image

Acceptable Use

The contents of the PACE Turfgrass Research Institute (PTRI) website are intended for your personal, noncommercial use. All materials published on the PTRI website (including, but not limited to PACE Insights, PACE References, PACE Clubhouse Editions, presentations, research reports and photos, also known as “Content”) are protected by copyright, and are owned or controlled by the PACE Turfgrass Research Institute, or the party credited as the provider of the Content. You shall abide by all additional copyright notices, information, or restrictions contained in any Content accessed through the PTRI website.

The PACE Turfgrass Research Institute website and its Contents are protected by copyright pursuant to U.S. and international copyright laws. You may not modify, publish, transmit, participate in the transfer or sale of, reproduce (except as provided in the paragraph below), create new works from, distribute, perform, display, or in any way exploit, any of the Content or the PTRI website (including software) in whole or in part.

You may download or copy the Content and other downloadable items displayed on the PTRI website for personal use only, provided that you maintain all copyright and other notices contained therein. Copying or storing of any Content for other than personal use is expressly prohibited without prior written permission from the PACE Turfgrass Research Institute or the copyright holder identified in the copyright notice contained in the Content.

Privacy Policy

PACE Turf is committed to protecting your privacy. We do not rent, sell or share your personal information with any other people or organizations for any purpose. The following discloses our information collection and use practices.

Information collection: To view free public services on the homepage, the tour or Super Journal, it is not necessary to join PACE Turf. However, PACE Turf membership is required for access to restricted areas including Updates, Weather, Insights, Clubhouse Editions, Gallery, References and Highlights. When you join, we will request that you provide personal information such as your name, e-mail address, street address or phone number for membership initiation. This personal information is used to communicate with customers and to verify identity during support and customer service requests. PACE Turf uses a member ID number, an assigned site member name (user name), and a password chosen by our members and registered participants to permit them access to our restricted services. We use your IP address as recorded in our site logs only as needed to help diagnose problems with our server, and to administer our Web site. We do not use IP address logs to track your session or your behavior on our site, and they are not shared with other sites.

Credit card transactions: All credit card transactions conducted on the PACE Turf Website are protected by VeriSign Payment Services, the most trusted security technology on the web. PACE Turf uses VeriSign’s top-of-the-line 128 bit encryption system to protect your credit card information from hacking and interception.

Cookie technology: PACE Turf uses temporary cookies to improve web navigation on the member pages, and to save access permissions for our members so that they do not have to log in multiple times as they attempt to access restricted pages during a single online session. These cookies do not contain any personal information, and are not shared with any other web site. Users who do not accept cookies from the domain www.paceturf.org may not be able to access most areas of the PACE Turf website.

Corrections and updates: Members may change their membership information (password, contact information) at any time by logging in, clicking on the the My Account section and making the appropriate changes in the "Change password/edit profile" area.

If you have questions about the privacy policy, please Contact us .

Membership Benefits

We invite you to join the world’s best informed turf managers by becoming a member of the PACE Turfgrass Research Institute today. For an annual fee of $325.00, members will receive a wealth of printed, emailed and on-line information.  Take the PACE Tour for more information on membership benefits.

Who We Are

PACE Turf was founded in 1988 by owners Larry Stowell, Ph.D. and Wendy Gelernter, Ph.D. to provide expert, objective, science-based advice and information to the turf management community. Using research results, on-the-ground experience, and their over 65 years of combined knowledge in agronomy, plant pathology, entomology, weed science and turf science, PACE Turf has long been a leader in translating science into practical turf management information, and in helping turf managers prevent problems before they occur .

PACE Turf offers a membership information service that delivers science-based solutions to turf management problems with breaking research news, information and expert advice on products, practices, pests and weather threats. With information customized specifically for each member's location, PACE Turf delivers its clear, bottom-line conclusions via email alerts and a state of the art website that is uncluttered by advertising. To learn more about the benefits of PACE Turf membership, click here or sign up here.

Free public services offered on the commercial-free PACE Turf website include access to turf management guidelines on pests, soils, water and plant analysis. In addition, PACE Turf’s Super Journal is an online turf research publication overseen by the PACE Turf Research Advisory Board. Super Journal contains an ever-growing number of turf research reports written by golf course superintendents and turf researchers, on topics ranging from turf IPM or integrated pest management, to soil, water and irrigation management, to new advances in turf monitoring practices and procedures.

Quick test for soil nitrate

We have developed a quick, easy, on-site test that can detect excessive levels of soil nitrates. Although this test does not replace analytical testing, it provides values that are rough estimates of nitrate levels, and should be a useful and rapid diagnostic tool.

Materials needed:

  • Hach water test strips for nitrate/nitrite (Cat. # 27454-25, Hach Company, PO Box 389, Loveland, CO 80539. Phone: 800-227-4224. A bottle of 25 strips is $16.29 as of July, 2010.
  • Small beaker or container
  • Tablespoon
  • Soil from problem area and from nearby area of healthy turf
  • Notebook for recording data

Procedure:

  1. Mix equal volumes of soil and tap water (for example, 1 tablespoon of each) in a small container and stir thoroughly. Allow the soil to settle for 1 minute
  2. Dip the test strip into the soil suspension.
  3. Allow the strip to develop for 1 minute
  4. Lightly rinse the strip with water to remove soil
  5. Compare the color on the tip of the strip to the nitrate nitrogen color chart on the test strip container. Write down the ppm value that you think is closest to the color you see on the strip. This value must be converted to obtain the nitrate concentration (in parts per million) of your soil, using the formula below:

    (Dipstick value X 1.5) + 2.9 = Soil nitrate concentration (ppm)

    For example, assume that the color on your dipstick indicates roughly 15 ppm nitrate, as it does in this photo. Remember -- the dipstick value needs to be converted to one that is accurate for soil nitrate! The soil nitrate concentration is therefore = (15 X 1.5) + 2.9 = 24.9.

  6. If the final value is over 20 ppm as it is in the example above, nitrogen applications of all types should be halted until levels are well below 20 ppm. If possible, leach the area to help bring nitrogen levels down more rapidly.

Keep in mind that the dipstick test has several limitations, including:

  • It does not test for ammonium levels -- only for nitrate levels. Therefore, even if you have high ammonium levels in your soils, you will get a low reading from the dipstick.
  • The test is designed to detect an excess of nitrogen, but it will not detect nitrogen deficits. To determine whether your soils are lacking in nitrogen, the soils should be sent to an analytical laboratory.
  • The values you get with this test are rough estimates, at best. For more accurate readings, soils should be sent to an analytical lab for testing.

Turf Resources

PACE Turf makes this information available as a public service to the turf management community. You can support our research and education programs by becoming a PACE Turf member today. Members also receive access to PACE Turf's award winning information service, an indispensable resource for all of those in the turf industry.

Pest management publications

Soil management guidelines

Other agronomic guidelines and tools

Useful websites

Turf Research

Impact of Weather and Climate on Turf Quality

A message from PACE Turf owners, Dr. Wendy Gelernter and Dr. Larry Stowell:

If you join PACE Turf today, you will have immediate access to weekly emailed updates, educational videos, site-specific weather and pest forecasts, and a state of the art website that will help you to prevent turf problems before they occur, save you time and money, and keep you current with the newest management products and practices. At $275 per year, or just $ 0.75 per day, it's a bargain that you can't afford to miss out on!

For more information on PACE Turf member benefits, please take the tour of PACE Turf member services, or read what other turf managers have to say about the benefits of membership.

Root Zone Bulk Density and Rapid Blight

The bulk density of a soil is a combination measure of the particle density and how tightly packed the particles are in the sample.  Under ideal conditions, the bulk density of a soil is a measure of soil pore space and can therefore provide important information on the degree of compaction on golf course greens.  In this article, the theoretical basis behind the bulk density measurement will be reviewed and its possible applications will be discussed through presentation of data recently generated at California golf courses.

Full print version:  PACE Insights 1995 Vol. 1 No. 12

Announcements

Sign up for the free MLSN Newsletter to keep up with the latest news on implementing these nutrient management guidelines

Learn more about the MLSN guidelines and how they can help you manage fertilizer inputs

Get TurfNet's take on PACE Turf in the article, "Making Sense of Science".

Check out our newest YouTube Videos on the PACE Turf YouTube Video Channel, and visit us on the PACE Turf Facebook page!

For print publications on soil, water and pest management guidelines, check out our Turf Resources page.

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